The church and nunnery were built by Benedictine nuns from S. Paolo at Pugnano, near Pisa, beginning in 1407. They had first moved to S. Anna al Renaio in 1275 and from there to S.Maria di Barbaricina. The Church, consecrated in 1427, was renovated by Girolamo Ammannati in the 16th century and opened once more for worship in 1584. Between 1741 and 1747 it was once more completely re-structured by the two Melani brothers, architects and painters from Pisa, giving it the appearance we see today. The convent was suppressed in 1786 and in 1809 was converted into a boarding school for girls; in 1987 it became the home of the "Scuola Superiore di studi universitari e di perfezionamento di Sant’Anna".