The reformed Carmelite congregation, which was known in Italy as the Carmelitani Scalzi (barefoot), was established in Rome in 1617. A community of friars of the new order was established temporarily at what became Santa Caterina Nuova in 1622. Alessandro Baglioni designed the friars' new church in the form of a Greek cross with a cylindrical drum above the crossing. It was consecrated in 1626 and construction continued until 1718. Its façade was never finished. The community was suppressed in 1870. The church belongs to the Centro Neocatecumenale Diocesano “Servo di Jahvé” and the rest of the complex is now used as a school.